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It is the manufacturer who is responsible for ensuring that a product is safe. In order to assess the safety of products, the authorities together with the industry have compiled standards for different product groups.
Standards are often international and apply, at least, throughout the EEA. When a new product is developed, it is appropriate at an early stage to determine which standard the product shall comply with.
The manufacturer produces technical documentation for the product. When the product has been developed and manufactured, the manufacturer produces a Declaration of Conformity. The product can be CE-marked when these documents are available.
The manufacturer always has the possibility to use an independent test body to test the product. A number of test bodies are accredited to certify products. A certified product has a certification mark, such as S, F or N. Before Sweden joined the EU in 1995, all electrical products were certified in Sweden. This was referred to as S marking. We had a system for preliminary examination. When Sweden joined the EU, we transferred to a system of self-certification and we began to apply CE-marks on products.